IYCr Supporters

Bruker Corporation has been driven by the idea to always provide the best technological solution for each analytical task for more than 50 years.
Today, worldwide more than 6,000 employees are working on this permanent challenge at over 90 locations on all continents. Bruker systems cover a broad spectrum of applications in all fields of research and development and are used in all industrial production processes for the purpose of ensuring quality and process reliability.
Bruker continues to build upon its extensive range of products and solutions, its broad base of installed systems and a strong reputation among its customers. Being one of the world's leading analytical instrumentation companies, Bruker is strongly committed to further fully meet its customers' needs as well as to continue to develop state-of-the-art technologies and innovative solutions for today's analytical questions.
Oxford Cryosystems is a market-leading manufacturer of specialist scientific instrumentation and software. The origins of the company lie in the design and manufacture of the original Cryostream Cooler in 1985, which immediately became the system of choice for cooling samples in X-ray diffraction experiments. The range of products for use in sample cooling has expanded over the last twenty-five years to include liquid-free systems, helium coolers and specially adapted systems for use with powder samples. Today the company is considered to be the global market leader in X-ray diffraction sample cooling.
Dectris is the technology leader in X-ray detection. The DECTRIS photon counting detectors have transformed basic research at synchrotron light sources, as well as in the laboratory and with industrial X-ray applications. DECTRIS aims to continuously improve measurement quality, thereby enabling new scientific findings. This pioneering technology is the basis of a broad range of products, all scaled to meet the needs of various applications. DECTRIS also provides solutions for customer developments in scientific and industrial X-ray detection.
DECTRIS was awarded the 2010 Swiss Economic Award in the High-Tech Biotech category, the most prestigious prize for start-up companies in Switzerland.
Anton Paar GmbH produces high-end measuring and laboratory instruments for industry and research. It is the world leader in the measurement of density, concentration and CO2 and in the field of rheometry. Anton Paar GmbH is owned by the charitable Santner Foundation. The powerful high-temperature and low-temperature sample stages from Anton Paar for in-situ X-ray diffraction unite longstanding experience with state-of-the-art technology. Whether for in-situ investigations into phase transitions, solid state/gas reactions or structure determination, the XRD solutions from Anton Paar provide the highest flexibility for virtually all fields of material research.
STOE, originally founded in 1887, to manufacture equipment for the optical analysis of crystals, has been a pioneer in powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction since the 1960’s, e.g. STOE invented and patented the transmission geometry technique for Powder XRD as well as, for single crystals, produced the first pixel detector XRD system with an open Eulerian cradle. STOE is based in Darmstadt, Germany, and keeps the R&D, software programming, electrical and mechanical engineering and production all in house, allowing STOE to provide customers with standard as well as individual solutions. Whenever it comes to quality, STOE accepts no compromises. This high-level of detail is what sets STOE apart. STOE is the partner in X-Ray Diffraction to crystallographers, chemists, material scientists and pharmacists all over the world.
Since its inception in 1951, Rigaku has been at the forefront of analytical and industrial instrumentation technology. Today, with hundreds of major innovations to their credit, the Rigaku is the world leader in the field of an analytical instrumentation for X-ray crystallography. With Rigaku’s vast understanding of X-ray and its complementary technologies as a foundation, our true strength is seen in an unparalleled willingness to collaborate with customers. By promoting partnerships, dialog, and innovation within the global scientific and industrial communities, Rigaku demonstrates a relentless commitment to providing our client markets with fully integrated solutions.
Incoatec develops, produces and supplies components for X-ray analytical systems. These components include optics, mirrors, and microfocus sources for applications in x-ray diffraction, x-ray scattering and x-ray spectrometry. We offer solutions for chemistry, pharmacy, semiconductor industry, heavy industry, life science and nanotechnology, enabling our customers to make better use of their resources and improve their results. Using our extensive know-how in thin film technology together with our in-house mechanical and electronic workshops, we are able to provide reliable, efficient and environment-friendly products: Made in Germany. Incoatec was founded in 2002 as a spin-off of the GKSS Research Center in Geesthacht near Hamburg (today Helmholtz Center Geesthacht) and in a joint venture with Bruker AXS. In addition to being an OEM supplier for Bruker AXS, we offer tailor-made solutions directly to end customers as well. Incoatec - your partner for multilayer optics and microfocus sources!
Xenocs provides complete solutions for characterizing the nanostructure and morphology of materials. The product portfolio of the company includes innovative high performance instruments that combine Small and Wide Angle X-ray Scattering techniques (SAXS/WAXS). The Xenocs team of experienced scientists and engineers is committed to delivering high quality service to our customers. Created in 2000, Xenocs is a spin-off company from the Institut Laue Langevin, based in Grenoble, France.
When measurement matters, engineers, scientists, manufacturers, businesses, researchers, and government agencies rely on Agilent tools and solutions. From home entertainment to homeland security, from food safety to network reliability, and from communicating wirelessly to discovering the genetic basis of disease, Agilent provides the measurement capabilities that make our world more productive and a safer, healthier, more enjoyable place to live.
No other company offers the breadth and depth of measurement tools and expertise to meet the world’s critical requirements for electronic and bio-analytical measurement. With our long track record and our exclusive focus on measurement, Agilent is the global industry leader - by virtually any measure
PANalytical was founded half a century ago as part of the Philips organization. We quickly gained a growing reputation for utilizing highly scientific X-ray analysis technology in order to add proven and demonstrable added value for customers in science and industry. The process of harnessing science to real world needs is central to our activities, and is achieved by working closely together with scientists and professionals in research and industrial laboratories. We see our X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction systems being used in more and more industries – in order to deliver ever-improving levels of accuracy and efficiency.
Together with our customers around the world, we are contributing greatly towards the drive for better housing, safer cars and airplanes, more effective medical therapies, easier and cheaper communications, and a healthier environment. Every day, billions of people use an incredible range of products that have been improved with the help of materials characterization through X-ray analysis.
In 2002, we were incorporated into Spectris as one of their autonomous operating businesses. Our core values remained unchanged, and we continue to be committed to leadership and innovation, customer satisfaction, safety, environmental health, ethical standards, integrity, fairness, trust and mutual respect.
The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) is an Australian public research organisation responsible for delivering specialised advice, scientific services and products. Its general purpose is prescribed by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Act 1987 and translated into action through the corporate drivers of vision, mission and strategic priorities.
ANSTO is the new operator of the Australian Synchrotron as by 1 January 2013, bringing two of Australia’s most significant pieces of scientific infrastructure together and advancing scientific outcomes for the nation.
The Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI) is a Public Organization under the supervision of the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Royal Thai Government. The institute operates the Siam Photon Laboratory (SPL) which is the first synchrotron facility of Thailand. The SPL services synchrotron light from the Siam Photon Source (SPS), a 1.2 GeV synchrotron light source. Many experimental techniques are available at the SPL for Thai and international users. The Siam Photon Project was approved by the government of Thailand in 1996 to develop the Siam Photon Source (SPS), the first synchrotron light source in Thailand. Major parts of the source were transferred from the shut down SORTEC laboratory, Japan. The storage ring was redesigned for 1.2 GeV operation. The Siam Photon Project was managed by then the National Synchrotron Research Center (NSRC) which was established under the resolution of the Cabinet of the Thai Government met on 5 March 1996. At that time, the Cabinet agreed on the establishment of the NSRC Project under supervision of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment. The project aimed at promoting basic and applied scientific research in Thailand. The NSRC was located at the Technopolis of Suranaree University of Technology in Nakhon-Ratchasima. Later, the Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI) was established to replace the NSRC.
RIKEN is Japan's largest comprehensive research institution renowned for high-quality research in a diverse range of scientific disciplines. Founded in 1917 as a private research foundation in Tokyo, RIKEN has grown rapidly in size and scope, today encompassing a network of world-class research centers and institutes across Japan.
Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste is a multidisciplinary international laboratory of excellence, specialized in generating high quality synchrotron and free-electron laser light and applying it in materials science. Its mission is to promote cultural, social and economic growth through: basic and applied research; technical and scientific training; transfer of technology and know-how. The main assets of the research centre are two advanced light sources, the electron storage ring Elettra and the free-electron laser (FEL) FERMI.
The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) is an X-ray light source for Europe. It is located in Grenoble, France, and supported and shared by 20 countries.
The ESRF is one of the world's largest synchrotron science centres. Every year, more than 6000 scientists from 12 member countries and from around the world travel to Grenoble to use its extremely brilliant X-rays for leading-edge research. This fundamental and applied research often addresses how to better use resources, develop more sustainable materials or improve our daily lives. The ESRF Upgrade Programme 2009-2018 maintains our world-leading role through a continuous quest for higher performance figures, meeting the needs of returning users, and attracting scientists from new disciplines.
The ESRF is an international research institute for cutting-edge science with photons: Discovery of the structure and dynamics of our complex world, down to the single atom.
Canadian Light Source Inc. (CLSI) operates the Canadian Light Source, Canada’s national synchrotron research facility. Located at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, the CLS is a world-class, state-of-the-art facility that is advancing Canadian science, enhancing the competitiveness of Canadian industry and contributing to the quality of life of people around the world. The Canadian Light Source is committed to being a world-leading centre of excellence in synchrotron science and its applications by working with the scientific community to promote the use of synchrotron light, promoting industrial partnerships and innovation, and engaging in scientific and educational outreach.
The Reactor Institute Delft (RID) is part of the Applied Sciences faculty of the Delft University of Technology. It operates radiation-related facilities and houses the Radiation Science & Technology (RST) department of the same faculty. The knowledge and expertise of RID play an important role in fundamental and applied scientific research in various fields, e.g. health and sustainable energy, both nationally and internationally.
The Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) operates the only synchrotron light source in Latin America, providing high brilliant light from infrared to X-rays for the analysis of organic and inorganic materials. Designed and built with Brazilian technology, LNLS was inaugurated in 1997 as an open facility to the scientific and industrial communities across the country and abroad. The Laboratory is managed by CNPEM (Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials), located in Campinas, at São Paulo state. LNLS is currently engaged in the development and construction of Sirius, the next Brazilian synchrotron light source. It is planned to be a state of the art third generation machine, designed to be one of the most advanced in the world. Its ultra-low emittance and thus high brightness will open up new perspectives for research in many fields such as material science, structural biology, nanoscience, physics, earth and environmental science, cultural heritage, among many others. It is scheduled to start commissioning in 2016 and to be opened to users in 2017.
Photon Factory - KEK, the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, is one of the world's leading accelerator science research laboratories, using high-energy particle beams and synchrotron light sources to probe the fundamental properties of matter. KEK promotes national and international collaborative research activities by providing advanced research facilities and opportunities, and is committed to being in the forefront of accelerator science in Asia-Oceania, by cooperating closely with other institutions, especially with Asian laboratories.
The Institut Laue-Langevin is an international research centre at the leading edge of neutron science and technology. As the world’s flagship centre for neutron science, the ILL provides scientists with a very high flux of neutrons feeding some 40 state-of-the-art instruments, which are constantly being developed and upgraded. As a service institute the ILL makes its facilities and expertise available to visiting scientists. Every year, some 1500 researchers from over 40 countries visit the ILL. More than 800 experiments selected by a scientific review committee are performed annually. Research focuses primarily on fundamental science in a variety of fields: condensed matter physics, chemistry, biology, nuclear physics and materials science, etc.
Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie (HZB) was established from the former Hahn-Meitner-Institut (HMI) and the Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft für Synchrotronstrahlung (BESSY). It provides two large facilities for materials research: the neutron source BER II and the synchrotron source BESSY II. With its unique research infrastructure, HZB attracts around 3000 scientists to Berlin each year. A common user platform ensures a uniform procedure for allocating measurement time. In the field of solar energy research, HZB scientists are paving the way for new generations of solar cells and solar fuels to conquer the market. As a member of the Photovoltaic Competence Centre (PVcomB), HZB promotes the transfer of technology and knowledge into industry.
SPring-8 is a large synchrotron radiation facility which delivers the most powerful synchrotron radiation currently available. Consisting of narrow, powerful beams of electromagnetic radiation, synchrotron radiation is produced when electron beams, accelerated to nearly the speed of light, are forced to travel in a curved path by a magnetic field. The research conducted at SPring-8, located in Harima Science Park City, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, includes nanotechnology, biotechnology and industrial applications. The name "SPring-8" is derived from "Super Photon ring-8 GeV" (8 GeV, or 8 giga electron volts, being the power output of the ring). SPring-8 was opened in 1997 to industrial, academic and government users, domestic and international. Any user whose application is accepted may use the facility. SPring-8 is managed by RIKEN, with the Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI) in charge of operation, maintenance and promotion of use.
The Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI, is the largest research centre for natural and engineering sciences within Switzerland. We perform world-class research in three main subject areas: Matter and Material; Energy and the Environment; and Human Health. By conducting fundamental and applied research, we work on long-term solutions for major challenges facing society, industry and science.
The MAX IV Laboratory is a user facility. Its mission is to provide the best opportunities for the user community by continuing to improve and operate the beamlines at MAX-lab in an optimal way and by creating well-functioning beamlines that fully exploit the pioneering MAX IV accelerators and by strong attention to the needs of the research community and innovation opportunities. The MAX IV source will be the most brilliant synchrotron light source in the World and will by far exceed the performance of other third generation synchrotron radiation facilities. The unsurpassed brightness and coherence of the MAX IV sources will, in particular, facilitate imaging and microscopy methods with unprecedented spatial resolution and simultaneous sensitivity to chemical, electronic, geometric, magnetic, etc. structure. This vast potential gives the MAX IV Laboratory outstanding possibilities to become an internationally leading facility for the use of synchrotron radiation in virtually all areas of science and technology.
ANKA is the synchrotron light source facility at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). With the opening of ANKA in March 2003, Karlsruhe joined the exclusive club of some 50 cities worldwide that maintain and develop their own synchrotron light source for the benefit of an international user community. As a large scale facility of the Helmholtz Association of National Research Centers ANKA is part of the national and European infrastructure offered to scientific and commercial users for performing excellent science and relevant technological development. ANKA is the synchrotron facility at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). As a large scale facility of the Helmholtz Association of National Research Centers ANKA is part of the national and European infrastructure offered to scientific and commercial users for performing excellent science and relevant technological development.
The Australian Synchrotron is a world-class science facility with a rapidly growing reputation for producing high-quality results.
Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, SSRF, is a third-generation of synchrotron radiation light source, and would be the invaluable tools for Chinese scientific research and industry community. Up to now, SSRF is the biggest scientific platform for science research and technology development in China, and more than hundreds of scientists and engineers from universities, institutes and industries in domestic and even overseas can do research, experiments and R&D by using SSRF each day.
Diamond Light Source is the UK’s national synchrotron science facility, located at the Harwell Science and Innovation Campus in Oxfordshire. By accelerating electrons to near light-speed, Diamond generates brilliant beams of light from infra-red to X-rays which are used for academic and industry research and development across a range of scientific disciplines including structural biology, physics, chemistry, materials science, engineering, earth and environmental sciences.
DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres and is member of the Helmholtz Association. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.
Argonne is a multidisciplinary science and engineering research center, where “dream teams” of world-class researchers work alongside experts from industry, academia and other government laboratories to address vital national challenges in clean energy, environment, technology and national security. Through collaborations with researchers here at Argonne and around the world, we strive to discover new ways to develop energy innovations through science, create novel materials molecule-by-molecule, and gain a deeper understanding of our planet, our climate and the cosmos.
The first Taiwan synchrotron light source situated at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) has been operational for twelve years. Scientists from nationwide and all over the world have been swarming in to conduct pioneering scientific research, with remarkable growth in both research quality and quantity, leveled up to world standard.
SACLA is the most compact X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) facility in the world, and is also now the only XFEL operating below 1 Å wavelength. SACLA was built jointly by RIKEN and JASRI as one of the Key Technologies of National Importance, and was completed in March 2011. SACLA's benefits include short wavelength and pulse-width, enabling the observation of living organisms and materials at the atomic level. Significantly, the close proximity between SACLA and the large synchrotron radiation facility SPring-8 enables collaborative projects using both XFEL and bright SR.
Seventeen European countries are working together to build a leading research facility of unparalleled power and scientific performance for materials and life science with neutrons – the European Spallation Source. Right now, hundreds of scientists and engineers from all over the world are working on the design and planning of the ESS facility. This modern research infrastructure will open new scientific opportunities for scientists from Europe and all over the world, providing unrivaled experimental opportunities for thousands of scientists every year. On these pages you will find general information about all aspects of the ESS project, as well as news stories and feature articles, facts & figures, documentation and contact details.
FIZ Karlsruhe is a leading international provider of scientific information and services. Our mission is to supply scientists and companies with professional research and patent information as well as to develop innovative information services. As a key player in the information infrastructure we pursue our own research program and also cooperate with leading universities and research associations.
The Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) is the world’s biggest database of fully evaluated and published crystal structure data. Science and industry are offered high-quality records that will provide a basis for studies in materials science, e.g. for identifying unknown substances. ICSD contains more than 165,000 crystal structures of inorganic substances published since 1913. Metals were included in ICSD several years. The metal structures were recorded retroactively in cooperation with FIZ Karlsruhe’s partner, NIST (National Institute for Science and Technology, Washington, DC, USA).
FIZ Karlsruhe is a non-profit corporation and the largest non-university institution for information infrastructure in Germany. FIZ Karlsruhe is a member of the Leibniz Association, which comprises almost 90 institutions involved in research activities and/or the development of scientific infrastructure.
The Royal Society of Chemistry is the world's leading chemistry community, advancing excellence in the chemical sciences. With 49,000 members and a worldwide knowledge business that spans the globe, we are the UK's professional body for chemical scientists; a not-for-profit organisation with 170 years of history and an international vision for the future. We promote, support and celebrate chemistry. We work to shape the future of the chemical sciences - for the benefit of science and humanity.
The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) is dedicated to the advancement of chemistry and crystallography for the public benefit through providing high quality information, software and services. Chemists in academic institutions and commercial operations around the world rely on the CCDC to deliver the most comprehensive and rigorous molecular structure information and powerful insights into their research.
The CCDC is a non-profit organisation and a registered charity, supported entirely by software subscriptions from its many users. The CCDC compiles and distributes the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD), the world's repository of experimentally determined organic and metal-organic crystal structures. It also develops knowledge bases and applications which enable users quickly and efficiently to derive huge value from this unique resource.
TWAS, The World Academy of Sciences for the advancement of science in developing countries, is an international science academy, founded in 1983 in Trieste, Italy, by a distinguished group of scientists from the South under the leadership of the late Nobel laureate Abdus Salam of Pakistan. It was officially launched by the secretary-general of the United Nations in 1985. TWAS represents the best of science in developing countries. Its main mission is to promote scientific excellence and capacity in the South for science-based sustainable development. Its strength resides in the quality and diversity of its membership - internationally renowned scientists elected by their peers.
One of the world’s largest publishers of scientific information in physics and the related sciences, AIP Publishing employs innovative technologies and offers publishing services for the American Institute of Physics and AIP Member Society publishing partners. AIP Publishing’s suite of publications includes 17 journals, three of which are published in partnership with other organizations; magazines, including AIP’s flagship publication Physics Today; and the AIP Conference Proceedings series. Structural Dynamics is a new open access and online-only journal co-published by ACA and AIP Publishing. It will highlight research articles on structural determination and dynamics of systems, enabled by the emerging new instruments (e.g. XFELs, electron sources, etc.) and new experimental and theoretical methodologies.
Nature Publishing Group (NPG) is a publisher of high impact scientific and medical information in print and online. NPG publishes journals, online databases, and services across the life, physical, chemical and applied sciences and clinical medicine. Nature Milestones: Crystallography, publishing in July 2014, will be a collaboration from Nature, Nature Materials, Nature Nanotechnology and Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, and will celebrate the International Year of Crystallography 2014. The Milestones web site will also include an extensive Library of related material from across NPG. Print copies of the supplement will be available at the Congress General Assembly of the International Union of Crystallography in Montreal in August 2014 and on request from the Milestones website later in the year.
The Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (National Center for Scientific Research) is a public organization under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Higher Education and Research. Founded in 1939 by governmental decree, CNRS has the following missions: to evaluate and carry out all research capable of advancing knowledge and bringing social, cultural, and economic benefits for society; to contribute to the application and promotion of research results; to develop scientific information; to support research training; to participate in the analysis of the national and international scientific climate and its potential for evolution in order to develop a national policy.
Insight Publishers is a specialist research dissemination agency and leads dissemination and exploitation activities on many FP7 projects and is involved in several project proposals for H2020. Projects Magazine, published by Insight Publishers, is Europe's leading publication focusing on science, technology and innovation. The fully open source publication provides a platform for research projects to highlight their work and disseminate their results, while this is supported with news, analysis and comment from relevant stakeholders across several thematic sectors. The publication drives innovation and exposes cross-sectorial research taking place in Europe to a wide audience and promotes further collaboration and knowledge transfer.
Insight and Projects have teamed up with the International Year of Crystallography 2014 as media partners and will be producing a special celebration issue of the magazine in October. The issue will focus on large synchrotron and neutron radiation facilities, providing news, opinion and analysis of this crucial aspect of research and innovation.
Since its founding in 1848, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and its members have worked together to advance science and serve society. As part of these efforts, AAAS publishes Science, a multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal, featuring scientific research articles and reports and providing commentaries on recent news and events from around the world.
Pick up a copy of Science's Special Issue reprint on ‘Crystallography at 100’, which celebrates the insights gained from structural studies that have revolutionized our understanding of chemical and biological systems, leading to the award of 29 Nobel Prizes for scientific achievements related to, or involving the use of, crystallography, available from the IYCr/IUCr stand at the IYCr Congress in Montreal.
The International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) is partner of UNESCO for the implementation and coordination of the activities for IYCr2014. The IUCr is a scientific union whose objectives are to promote international cooperation in crystallography and to contribute to the advancement of crystallography in all its aspects.
The IUCr fulfills part of these objectives by publishing high-quality crystallographic research through nine primary scientific journals: Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations and Advances; Acta Crystallographica Section B: Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials; Acta Crystallographica Section C: Structural Chemistry; Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography; Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online; Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology Communications; Journal of Applied Crystallography; Journal of Synchrotron Radiation; and the final journal – launched specially for the International Year of Crystallography – IUCrJ, a gold open-access title.
The International Council for Science (ICSU) is a non-governmental organisation with a global membership of national scientific bodies (120 Members, representing 140 countries) and International Scientific Unions (31 Members). ICSU’s mission is to strengthen international science for the benefit of society. Our long-term strategic vision is for a world where science is used for the benefit of all, excellence in science is valued and scientific knowledge is effectively linked to policy making.
Support for IYCr2014 has been also received from its member scientific unions, including IUPAC (Pure and Applied Chemistry), IUPAB (Biophysics), IUPAP (Pure and Applied Physics), IUBMB (Biochemistry and Molecular Biology), IMU (Mathematics), IAU (Astronomy), IUHPS (History and Philosophy of Science), IUPHAR (Basic and Clinical Pharmacology) and IUFRO (Forest Research).