Examples of artificially grown crystals

low temperature bainite 

Surface relief caused by displacive solid-state transformation in steel. Transformation is from fully austenite (face-centred cubic) to a bainitic nanostructure (in this case, body-centred cubic crystals embedded in the austenite). This surface displacement can be used to characterised the shear component of the transformation. Although the crystals are near the nm scale bulk samples of tonnage scale can be transformed to this microstructure.
[Contributed by Mathew Peet on 27 Jan 2014]          

Crystal details

Compound name low temperature bainite
Formula Fe-3.3C-3.1Si-1.9Mn-1.52Cr-0.16Mo-0.1V-0.005P-0.005S (At.%)
Dimensions 40 nm x 100 nm x 100 nm
Mass 3.12 fg
Colour metallic / silver
Keywords inorg; bulk; nano

Growth conditions

Technique Isothermal transformation
Temperature 473 K
Growth rate
Solvent Alloying / thermal processing
Doping procedure Alloying / thermal processing
Keywords solid


Application(s) Such microstructures develop good combinations of strength and ductility. It is now available commercially as armour, although can be made suitable for any application that requires high strength.
Link(s) http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/; http://mathewpeet.org/thesis/; http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/bainite.html
Other remarks

© The Contributor
Conditions of reuse: Creative Commons Attribution Licence